Welcome to our final event of 2021, the Future of Ecommerce: Black Friday Cyber Monday! Our esteemed speakers joined in on this two-day event to share their top tips for having a successful holiday season year over year, starting with this year’s Black Friday.
The holiday season can be tough to get right, but with help from these speakers, you’ll be well-equipped to do well not only this year, but for years to come. There’s no time like the present, so don’t wait. Start watching now and don’t forget to book your forever free Tech Stack consultation with EcommerceTech.
Be Black Friday/Cyber Monday Ready With Shopify!
Overview: Are you ready for the biggest shopping holiday of the year? Come join us as we prepare for Black Friday/Cyber Monday. You'll learn how to plan and prepare your store for holiday traffic. Be prepared for this year’s BFCM by understanding what to expect, how to implement key strategies, and how to set yourself up for a successful holiday selling season.
In addition to some BCFM best practices, tips and tricks, Chris will:
- Run through a branding basics check up to make sure your brand is ready to make the most of the extra Holiday traffic
- A quick run through of some Organic Marketing best practices to ensure you are engaging with your audience in the most authentic way possible.
- Discuss some strategies for shipping and packaging to help make that rock solid lasting impression.
Special Offer: Get Shopify’s podcast and photo studio for $50 each
Summary: With the global pandemic still going strong in many places, Ecommerce experts have every reason to believe that shopping trends from last year are carrying into the 2021 holiday season. In fact, one out of 6 shoppers has already completed their holiday shopping by now due to concern about potential shortages. And if you want to have a chance of capturing the interest of those other five, you’ll want to keep these tips in mind:
- Purchasers in “buying mode” tend to be ready to buy early in the morning and early in the afternoon on Black Friday
- Don’t make code changes to your website starting 2 weeks before Black Friday
- Know and communicate with your customers early the latest day they can get standard shipping on a product and get it by the holiday they’re aiming to get it by
- Start planning early to figure out how the holiday season is going to affect your standard operating and shipping practices
Maximize Conversions with a Strategic Approach to Live Chat
Overview: Most stores think of live chat as a customer service cost center, but it can also be a massive conversion driver to recover a big chunk of checkout abandonments and drive even more conversions earlier in the purchase flow.
In this talk, Jon Tucker from HelpFlow shares the strategies they've used to drive nearly $100M in live chat revenue for a wide range of stores, including:
- How to predict checkout abandons and engage directly in the checkout flow.
- How to integrate live chat into cart abandonment emails to supercharge results.
- How to identify highly engaged prospects prior to checkout, and convert them.
- Actionable insights you can implement quickly to maximize conversions with live chat.
Special Offer: Download the BFCM blueprint: https://helpflow.net/BFCM2021
Summary: Succeeding on Black Friday is HARD. It’s difficult to drive good traffic, and what traffic you DO drive is expensive. What’s more, 50 percent of checkouts tend to abandon, and many of those abandonments happen really deep in the checkout process. Luckily, if you’re able to predict abandons BEFORE they happen, you can save a lot of these potential customers. Here are a few strategies that can help:
- People think of live chat as a customer service tool, but it can also be used to drive sales and prevent a lot of abandons
- Don’t use pre-chat forms
- Add live chat capabilities to the checkout process, your product and category pages, and cart abandonment email flows
- Respond quickly to all live chat inquiries
Protect Your BFCM
Overview: SaaS platforms like Shopify and BigCommerce may not have an “undo button” for stores to use, but there’s still a way for you to protect your data, online store, and bottom line. Maura Woodman from Rewind shares how in this Black Friday session.
Summary: All it takes are a few seconds for a business to lose all its data. Following that are hours, days, and even weeks of effort to try to fix the broken pieces, and too often, it’s impossible to restore everything completely. Luckily, though, there are six steps you can take to mitigate the risk of data loss and prevent complete shutdowns from happening in the future.
- Use a password management tool for all your company passwords
- Embrace 2 factor authentication and multi-factor authentication
- Adopt the principle of least privilege, meaning if you don’t need access to something to do your job, you shouldn’t have access
- Manage app access to ensure only apps you use and need have access to your data
- Watch out for phishing attacks
- Backup your store. This includes blogs, custom collections, customer data, product information, themes, and more.
Contact Maura: email@example.com
The Secret to Executing a Data-Driven BFCM Plan
Overview: Where does your current Black Friday Cyber Monday plan stand? What does the data say, and how are you using that data to drive your plan for the 2021 holiday season and beyond? If your answer to those questions is any iteration of “I’m not sure”, don’t worry. Yasmin from Peel has the secret to answering those questions and executing a data-driven BFCM plan.
Summary: When business owners thinking of Black Friday and Cyber Monday, we typically think of the high customer acquisition costs these holidays are known for. But what many merchants DON’T think about are their current customers. There’s a lot you can do with the data you already have on customers to encourage them to come back and make a purchase during the holidays.
- Use the data you have from previous seasonal events, the past 6 months and last year’s BFCM to know where you stand with customer repurchase rates
- Set goals for your repurchase rate and AOV that you can measure over time
- Track your LTV, repeat purchase rate, and AOV so you can learn from it after Black Friday and Cyber Monday
Tech Showcase: Wonderment
Overview: Looking to get control of your shipping process? Meet Wonderment. Wonderment enables you to bring your shipping data to the other platforms you use to communicate with customers and run your business. Watch this session to learn how Wonderment can help you see dramatically fewer Where Is My Order (WISMO) tickets this holiday season and beyond.
Summary: Stores that communicate with their customers see dramatically fewer WISMO tickets. That’s why an important goal is to proactively solve shipping problems before they become an issue for your consumers. Wonderment enables you to do that. Wonderment is a shipping platform that helps you get ahead of post-purchase questions regarding order status and order support. Their tool enables you to:
- Understand your shipment process, see how shipments are going, how long they’re taking to arrive, etc.
- Access your shipping data and use it to create great interactions with your customers up front
- Understand the customer experience and what it’s really like for your customers when it comes to receiving shipments from you
Your Ultimate BFCM Messaging Strategy: 3 Tactics That Will Explode Your BFCM Revenue
Overview: Last year’s Black Friday was like no other, but 2021 also presents a unique set of challenges for brands and eCommerce sites like you.
So to help you prepare for the first mobile-first holiday season we've ever seen, Recart’s Brigitta Ruha shares the 3 messaging tactics that fast-growing brands deploy to generate more sales and maximize their revenue per visitor on mobile.
Ready to make this season your best ever?
Special Offer: https://recart.com/playbooks/sms-guide
Summary: Consumers sheltering in place during the winter surge of COVID-19 last year didn’t stop shopping — instead, they turned to online and mobile channels, subverted expectations about convenience, and looked for a great digital experience and a stronger connection with retailers. With those expectations only expected to grow this holiday season, it’s important that you alter the ways you interact with customers to follow the shift. These three tactics can help you do that:
- Start growing your list NOW. Reach out to customers where they’re most active, enable timely as well as contextual engagement of subscribers as they progress in their journey with your brand, and use multiple channels in tandem to drive as much traffic to your site as possible.
- Set up critical Ecommerce automation workflows. Across the globe, 7 out of 10 people tend to leave their carts full, while 80% of people in the U.S. abandon their carts. Done correctly, these workflows can help you significantly decrease those numbers.
- Generate LTV. Deploy your promotional calendar across all your messaging channels and remember to pay attention to ALL of your customers, not just new ones.
How To Drive Conversions & Retention Through Personalized Customer Experiences For BFCM 2021
Overview: Brands upped their eCommerce game in 2020, striving to meet the expectations of a consumer base in search of the right Black Friday deal while stuck at home.
Nothing beats personalization for that, and in a digital world full of brands all vying for revenue and growth, personalized customer experiences have become even more important.
Check out this session to learn how to step up and adapt your brands multichannel and personalization customer experiences in a post-pandemic hybrid experience.
Summary: With digital expectations higher than ever this year, retailers are focused on getting the most out of BFCM by investing in new experiences that support repeat purchases and customer communication. Personalization has been shown to drive repeat purchases, brand loyalty, and conversion, which is why it’s such an important part of the customer journey. Here are a few ways to do it correctly:
- Understand what your customers are asking. Understanding the trends your customers experience allows you to prioritize the engagements that are most important.
- Personify automation. 80% of shoppers are more likely to buy when a brand gives them a PERSONALIZED experience, so take your personalization up a notch to make it clear that your customers aren’t just a number to you. Create templated responses that can be customized to each customer, call them by name, remember their information after they’ve told you, etc.
- Be everywhere but have a system that organizes you so you can be active in the areas that need to be prioritized.
How Ecommerce and Retail Brands Can Prepare Successful Black Friday Campaigns
Overview: What’s a successful Black Friday campaign look like to you? Gints Gailis from Confect shares his vision and tips for Ecommerce and Retail brands looking to reach new heights with their revenue this holiday season, including:
- The secrets of visual content that sells
- Automating visual content production
- What channels should you promote?
Summary: With all this talk about Black Friday, it’s important to remember that the holiday season isn’t tied up in just that one day. There are multiple days that merchants can focus their campaigns on to drive traffic. Regardless of which day or days you choose to aim your marketing efforts at, it’s important to keep these six tips in mind:
- Keep it simple. Don’t confuse your customers with super complicated campaigns.
- Prepare early. The sooner you start, the higher your chances of success.
- Pay attention to your most recent and past purchasers. Data shows that buyers who shop for the first time from a retailer during Black Friday weekend make their first online visit, 41 days prior on average. That’s almost six weeks for a holiday shopper to search, evaluate, and investigate a Black Friday purchase
- Build an Audience. This ties in with preparing early. Who’s the best audience to target with your campaigns? Why should they care about your brand’s offer?
- Build awareness of your brand. People can’t buy from you if they don’t know about you.
- Build your content. What will customers want to know about your brand or products? What are the most commonly asked questions?
Tech Showcase: Bean Ninjas
Overview: If you’re an Ecommerce business looking to scale past 7 figures, look to Bean Ninjas as your go-to accounting firm. Wayne Richard shares how Bean Ninjas enables merchants to gain control over the why, where, and how they spend their time in this Black Friday showcase.
Summary: 90% of Ecommerce startups fail as a result of inadequate cash-flow, poor product-market fit, and the wrong team in place to grow and scale their business. Understanding each of these factors, though, and being proactive in dealing with them can help you experience the success you’re looking for. Bean Ninjas has a solution no matter which of these owner categories you fall into:
- Hustling Harry. Harry’s biggest problem is not knowing how much money he is making and not working within an organized system.
- Stressed out Suzie. Suzie’s biggest problem is being worried about paying a CPA but not having clear visibility and confidence in her financials
- Millionaire Mark. Mark’s biggest problem is getting his brand prepared for sale so that he can exit for the highest valuation possible
No BS tips for increasing your BFCM email marketing sales
Overview: When it comes to increasing your holiday email marketing sales, there is no silver bullet. Ecommerce brands need to understand what matters to shoppers, when to send their campaigns, which tactics are most effective, how to overcome the changes presented by iOS 15, and how to put it all together. This session sheds some yule-tide light on each of these topics and gives you the who, what, when, why, and how of using email and SMS benchmarks to increase your email marketing sales.
Summary: 95% of all automated orders on Black Friday and 91% of all automated orders on Cyber Monday tend to happen because of three automated message types. Can you guess what they are and why they work? We’ll give you a hint:
- Welcome flows
- Cart Abandonment flows
- Product Abandonment & Browse abandonment flows
Unfortunately, when it comes to increasing your holiday email marketing sales, there is no silver bullet. Look at the data you have on your customers -- what do they care about? Use under-utilized channels like SMS and Web push messages to cut through the noise, make contact with your customers, and find out.
5 Ways to Leverage Your Existing Customers for Black Friday
Overview: Running a successful BFCM campaign isn’t just about acquiring new customers. It’s also about enticing and taking care of the customers you already have, because without those customers, you’re losing out on countless revenue opportunities. Valentin Radu shares how to harness those opportunities and leverage your existing customers in this session.
Summary: What are you currently doing to take care of your customers? We’re not talking about new ones. We mean the ones who’ve purchased from you before. Without those customers, you’re losing out on countless revenue opportunities, so here’s how to leverage them for Black Friday:
- Segment customers using RFM (recency, frequency, monetary value)
- Build lookalike audiences based on your Soulmate customers
- Reactivate customers that bought from you last Black Friday
- Retarget past customers based on their purchase behavior
- Use the Wishlist Teaser tactic. This is called the Zeigarnik Effect. Here’s how to use it:
- Build the list of customers you actually want (soulmates, lovers, ex-lovers, new passion)
- Tease them with a special Black Friday offer only for what they chose in their wishlist
- Capture and decipher product intel and know-how early on
- Launch the campaigns and capture orders 1-2 weeks before Black Friday
- Ship the orders in advance (less work during your normal Black Friday)
No BS Approach to Shopify and Ecommerce Success
Overview: With BFCM right around the corner, now is the time to start planning your marketing campaigns and optimizing your website to win big this year. The pandemic has shifted more consumer spending online and away from physical stores, further increasing the revenue potential for brands. So you should expect the busiest BFCM yet -- but are you ready for it? Watch this session to find out.
Summary: Not giving up when it gets hard and knowing the best ways to improve your business are so vital to your success, especially when it comes to the holiday season. And as with any good campaign, preparation is key. Here are some of the top tips to effectively prepare for BFCM:
- Prepare and test your site, do not get caught out AFTER the fact with store issues, site load problems, or broken links
- Update your product descriptions, making your products irresistible via words will go a long way with conversions
- Plan out your marketing content calendar. planning ahead will get you over the line in an organized fashion
- Prepare the discount(s) you’ll be using and on which products and check inventory
Black Friday Preparedness: A Blueprint to Q4 Ecommerce Success
Overview: What strategies do you use to get your existing customers excited about new products? Do you give your customers a reason to revisit your website after they make their first purchase? Check out this session with 2x Ecommerce’s Kunle Campbell to find out the most underrated and overlooked strategic growth initiative and how to take advantage of it this holiday season.
Summary: Product optimization is the most underrated and overlooked strategic growth initiative for Ecommerce businesses. It delivers sales growth through product innovation and gives your existing customers more of a reason to revisit your website. To bring your customers’ attention to these new products is your next problem. Here’s how to do it this Black Friday.
- Email marketing - Your email list is your most critical marketing asset, and building it over time will result in increased rewards during the Black Friday and throughout the rest of the holidays.
- SMS Reminders - Everyone texts, but SMS remains an underutilized resource. Take advantage of this with SMS reminders to place orders before the holiday delivery deadlines.
- Facebook Retargeting
- Google AdWords
- Retargeting on Other Platforms
5 Strategies that Skyrocket Black Friday/Cyber Monday Ecommerce Profits
Overview: 2020 was a disappointing year for shoppers, but there are still some actions you can take to make up for last year and skyrocket sales and profits using AI AND your the data you’ve already collected.
Summary: 2020 may have been disappointing, but 2021 doesn’t have to be. There are 7 strategies you can employ to make up for last year and skyrocket your Black Friday/Cyber Monday profits this holiday season. Here’s a sneak peak at what they are:
- Do data correctly - eat your low hanging fruit
- Attract audiences early - 90% of shoppers buy from familiar brands
- Don’t be confusing - use simple and consistent messaging
- Show proof you can be trusted - social proof helps
- Show love to your shoppers - Reduce the friction for people who want to buy from you
- Bring audiences back on time - When you combine ads and email, you get more follow through, better engagement, and significantly higher purchase rates
- Use multi-channel AI for ads leverage - You can do more tests in more places
Brand Interview: Cheeky Wipes
Overview: They say necessity is the mother of invention, and that’s the truth with reusable-focused brand CheekyWipes. Now 13 years old, this company was founded with a special purpose: to make using washable wipes as easy as using disposable ones. They’ve not only done that, but have also succeeded in adding a number of other reusable solutions to their product lineup. Check out this session to learn how they did it.
Summary: From necessary invention to successful business, CheekyWipes is now 13, the same number you’ll find in a baker’s dozen. Founder Helen Rankin has had eczema since she was a child and couldn’t use disposable baby wipes when she had her son. From there, she set out on a mission to change the baby wipes industry one reusable wipe at a time. The biggest lessons she’s learned since then?
- Be objective about your business
- Don’t take things personally
- Look at things logically, rather than emotionally, when it problems come up
- If you can fix a problem for customers, you can turn them from an angry customer into an advocate for you
A Playbook on Making Your Customers Pay More and Stay Loyal to Your Brand
A talk by Nik Filos, Head of Growth, Storypop
Overview: Customers tend to stay loyal and pay more money to brands that use storytelling, but do you know why? Storypop’s Nik Filos shares the playbook on how and where to deliver your stories to increase brand awareness and capture new customers, as well as the 5 main reasons WHY customers value storytelling in the brands they support, in this exciting session.
Summary: There are 5 major reasons why people tend to stay loyal and pay more money to brands that use storytelling in their business efforts. Why storytelling? Neuroscience research shows that stories tend to trigger the release of Dopamine, Oxytocin, and Endorphins in people’s brains. Those hormones then help with establishing relationships with customers, primarily because human memory is story-based, and those stories help add meaning to the decisions we make. How do you leverage storytelling? Here’s the proven framework:
- Know your message, audience and brand. What do you want to communicate, who are you talking to, and who are YOU?
- What do we want to communicate?
- Who are we talking to?
- Who are we?
- Generate story ideas. Think about the stories behind your brand, your founders, and your product. What inspired you?
- Pick your format and make it authentic
- Photo-text is the superior way to deliver text information
- Deliver the story with strategies like Instagram stories, TikTok, product, website pages, earned media, and PR
Maintaining your SLA (Backlog Prevention and Reduction)
Overview: Are backlogs preventable? The short answer is sometimes, but what matters most is seeing a backlog before it happens, knowing what you'll do when it occurs, and obviously, getting out of it. Learn how to get out of your backlog and prevent one from happening in the future in this session.
Summary: The Workforce Pro’s busy season is the top of the calendar year because it's following the holidays and the infamous holiday backlog. In fact, most of their clients come in with a days or weeks long wait time and by the time they’re done, those clients are answering tickets in real time.
So what’s the secret to preventing a backlog?
- Deflect, don’t deter. Implement a self service strategy that will help to address some of your customer inquiries
- Automate where you can. Auto reply with relevant information based on keywords in your customers’ requests
- Create a capacity plan. Know what you can do and for how long and be prepared to ask for help ahead of time. If you’ll need to solve a backlog for more than a month, it is likely time to consider adding resources.
- Form partnerships. Partnerships will help you reduce your volume by introducing you to tools or resources that will help to make you more efficient. As outsiders, they can see the forest, where you can only see the trees
- Know when to ask for help. Companies like The Workforce Pro can help you get out of a backlog if one forms that you can’t get out of. You don’t have to do it all yourself.
Website Teardowns LIVE with Kurt Elster
Overview: Join Kurt Elster as he examines the mobile experience of brands just like yours and offers insights into what they’re doing well and what they could improve upon. Don’t forget to also check him out on The Unofficial Shopify Podcast.
Summary: Live website teardowns with Kurt Elster are always an experience, and this session is no exception. Two brands received the patented Elster advice for improving their websites, one of them for the third event in a row! These are just a few of the knowledge bombs Kurt shared:
- To increase the opt-in rate on welcome popups, don’t tell visitors how much they’ll get off when they opt-in
- Take advantage of personalization tools/optimizations. Some examples include Rebuy and Limespot.
- Decrease the number of pop-ups you have when a page first opens. Instead, fire those pop-ups on the scroll.
- Don’t neglect your website’s copywriting in favor of your tech stack. Both are equally important for your growth.
BFCM Influencer Marketing: Tips, Tricks, and Trends
Overview: Adding influencers to your BFCM marketing campaigns can be a great move, but only if it’s done correctly. Doing so requires planning and preparation, as well as a clearly defined strategy for accomplishing your goals with each campaign. Grin’s Katya Allison shares how to do each of these things and more.
Summary: An influencer is a person with the ability to influence their community to try, to buy, or to learn more by creating content that engages that community. When combined with traditional marketing campaigns, an influencer that truly fits in with your brand can make all the difference. First, though, you need to prepare for your campaign. Here’s how that looks throughout the year:
- June-August: Preparation and planning. Figure out the promotion, product, objective, KPIs and influencers
- September-October: Collaborate and Execute. Get product out to your influencers and get them posting
- November-December: Manage and Maintain. It’s game time! Run your campaigns and be prepped for monitoring progress and answering questions
- January: evaluate and extend. Remarketing
Tech Showcase: Rush
Overview: Tired of endless email chains asking about the status of your customer’s order? With its automated, State-Of-Art Shipment Tracking, Rush helps you generate more revenue and increase retention. They automate the shipment tracking process on all fronts so you never have to worry about losing customers again. Check out this session to learn how.
Summary: Neglecting your customer once the purchase is completed is LOSING you money. 75% of shoppers state that clear communication is key to a good delivery experience, while 38% expect to be notified immediately in the event of an issue. But with the expectation for this BFCM season being a delay on 20% of all packages, what can you do? Start using Rush. Here’s what they do:
- Help you generate more revenue and increase retention. No more endless email chains asking about the status of your customer’s order
- Bridge the gap between “order” and “unboxing”
- Automates the shipment tracking process on all fronts so you never have to worry about losing customers gain
- Give your customers full transparency with smart-triggered email and SMS notifications
How to Build Trust and Increase Conversions This Black Friday Cyber Monday
Overview: Join TrustedSite's Director of Partnerships, Lauren Ladra as she discusses the best practices for building trust and increasing conversions on your website this holiday season. You’ll learn how to address the needs of new visitors to make the most of your holiday traffic and will walk away with 5 trust-building tips to help give shoppers the confidence to complete their purchases, to minimize friction in the checkout funnel, and to increase conversions.
Summary: The entire digital landscape has changed dramatically since the start of the pandemic, and that’s only expected to continue. As of today, 92% of consumers are concerned about shopping on unfamiliar sites. This means the onus is on merchants to start building trust with potential customers sooner, rather than later. Here are a few things you can do.
- Make it clear that you are a legitimate business. Nearly two thirds of consumers worry about the legitimacy of a business when first arriving on an unfamiliar site, so you should include clear symbols of business legitimacy on every page of your website.
- Be transparent about logistics. 35% of consumers have reported abandoning a purchase due to order fulfillment concerns, so show how your business consistently delivers outstanding service.
- Leverage social proof. 93% of consumers read customer reviews to see what others have to say about the business and their products, and consumers spend as much as 30% more when companies have good reviews. Merge your trust-building tools and show off your reviews directly from the certification model.
- Offer protections with purchases. 84% of consumers are concerned about identity theft when shopping online. Offer the ability to split payments through buy now, pay later tools like Sezzle, Klarna, Afterpay or Affirm.
- Include visual trust indicators. 66% of consumers say the presence of trust signals increases their likelihood to buy a product
The Season of Giving (and Getting): Implementing Successful CSR Strategy in the Holidays
Overview: The new generation of consumers is buying with their values and voting with their wallets, and there’s no time where that’s more true than during the holiday season. Cat Yardley from ShoppingGives shares why that’s the case and how to implement a successful holiday impact strategy in this donation-focused session.
Summary: As of this year, retailers are spending over $20B in digital advertising to acquire and retain generational impact. Spending isn’t the only component that goes into successfully making an impact. There are also three others that are necessary for every brand to have. They are:
- Authenticity - Lead with your values in everything you do as a brand. How does each marketing campaign reflect those values, and how does it communicate them?
- Customer Engagement - Share your giving and its impacts with your customers, and always make sure to give back as a brand before asking your customers to join in.
- Measurement - Talk about the good you’re doing and analyze how that good impacts your bottom line. How does it resonate with your customers and what does it communicate about your brand?
Maximizing conversion boost in review apps: How to use reviews, Importing & Collection Flows
Overview: Having no reviews isn’t going to give customers confidence to buy from you. In fact, it’s more likely to turn customers OFF from buying from you if you have no reviews shown on your website, regardless of whether reviews are available on sites like Amazon or eBay. So what can you do? Tomasz Sadowski from Opinew shares the secret to migrating your Amazon and eBay reviews to boost your social proof on Shopify, as well as the best locations to place reviews on your site to garner higher conversion rates. Watch now to avoid missing out.
Summary: If you’ve been selling on Amazon or eBay for a while and have just shifted your attention to Shopify, we have some good news for you. You don’t have to start from scratch with your reviews. There’s actually a way to MIGRATE your reviews from Amazon and eBay to instantly boost your social proof on Shopify. Here’s why that social proof is important and how to showcase it effectively:
- Having no reviews isn’t going to give customers confidence to buy from you. In fact, the more reviews you have, the better.
- Your navigation bar is the most important place to put your reviews if you have the space. If you DON’T have the space, though, they can make your website look messy.
- Offer incentives for giving reviews. Doing this will make customers more likely to tell the world about their experience with your brand and will go a long way toward turning them into brand advocates and ambassadors over time.